This is an essential step in the process to identify the needs of the child as well as to set up the performance baseline for further intervention.
When a child is seen for the first time, a comprehensive assessment is recommended to start with. However, this also depends on the child’s ability and necessity. Hence the assessments are carried out in flexibility based on the needs of the child.
The initial assessment goes through non-standardised as well as standardised testing.
The comprehensive assessment will screen the child in the following areas –
Motor Organisation -
Fine and Gross Motor Skills,
Sensory Motor Skills,
Sensory Integration -
Regulation – Sensory Regulatory
Organisation of Behaviour
Communication Skill Assessment
Social Emotional Skills Assessment
Visual Motor – Visual Motor Integration
Visual Perception (non-motor).
Handwriting – Printing/Handwriting,
The results will be discussed with the parents immediately following the assessment.
A comprehensive written report is given to the parents, which includes a complete review of all other testing, a developmental history, test results and recommendations.
Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Bruininks, 1978)
Age range: 4 1/2 – 14 1/2 years
Evaluates the proficiency of gross and fine motor skill performance
Yields standard gross motor composite, fine motor composite, and total battery composite score as well as percentile rank in each area
Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (Folio & Fewell, 1983)?
Age range: Birth – 7 years
Evaluates gross and fine motor skill development
Yields standard score, percentile rank, and age equivalency for gross motor and fine motor performance
Movement ABC Test
The Movement ABC and Movement ABC, Second Edition are two of the most frequently used tests of motor impairment in the world; featuring in over 500 research studies internationally it has been translated and standardised in several countries.
Use the Movement ABC-2 to:
Identify delay or impairment in motor development
a) Sensory Integration and Praxis Test
The Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) measure the sensory integration processes that underlie learning and behaviour. By showing you how children organise and respond to sensory input, SIPT helps pinpoint specific organic problems associated with learning disabilities, emotional disorders, and minimal brain dysfunction.
17 Tests Provide a Comprehensive Assessment The SIPT measures visual, tactile, and kinesthetic perception as well as motor performance. It is composed of the following 17 brief tests:
1. Space Visualisation
2. Figure-Ground Perception
3. Standing/Walking Balance
4. Design Copying
5. Postural Praxis
6. Bilateral Motor Coordination
7. Praxis on Verbal Command
8. Constructional Praxis
9. Postrotary Nystagmus
10. Motor Accuracy
11. Sequencing Praxis
12. Oral Praxis
13. Manual Form Perception
15. Finger Identification
17. Localisation of Tactile Stimuli
The entire battery can be given in 2 hours. And any of the individual tests can be administered separately in about 10 minutes. Norms are provided for each test—based on a national (US) sample of more than 2,000 children between the ages of 4 years and 8 years, 11 months.
b) Clinical Observations
Dr Jean Ayres developed standard “clinical observations”. These clinical observations helps the therapist to facilitate their findings and supplement the information to their standardised testing. This assist the therapist to formulate the bigger picture of the child and prepare the intervention plan.
Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (Berry, 1996)
Age range: 2 – 15 years
Evaluates the integration of visual motor and visual perceptual skills for purpose of early identification of learning difficulties
Yields standard scores, percentile rank, and age equivalency scores
Developmental Test of Visual Perception – 2nd Edition (Hammill, Pearson, Voress, 1993)
Age range: 4 – 10 years
Evaluates visual perceptual skills using both motor and non-motor responses; assesses the areas of eye-hand coordination, position in space, copying, figure-ground, spatial relations, visual closure, visual-motor speed, and form constancy
Yields standard composite scores for general visual perception, motor-reduced visual perception, and visual-motor integration
Motor Free Visual Perceptual Test – Revised (Colarusso, Hammill, Mercier)
Age range: 4 – 11 years
Screens visual perceptual skills by requiring the child to indicate her response using only pointing; assesses the areas of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, figure-ground, visual closure, and visual memory
Yields a standard perceptual quotient and perceptual age equivalency
School Function Assessment (Coster, Deeney, Haltiwanger, Haley, 1997)
Age range: kindergarten – 6th grade
Evaluates functional performance in the elementary school setting which includes: participation in school activity settings, amount of assistance and adaptation for task performance, and performance in nine physical task areas and twelve cognitive/behavioral task areas.
Yields a standard score in each of the areas assessed and cut scores identify the typical range of performance for non-disabled children.
Non-Standardized Assessment/Clinical Observation
Clinical observation of muscle tone, joint range of motion, automatic balance responses, posture, gait and physical strength
Play Skills Evaluation
Informal and formal evaluation of play interactions may be set up during the assessment. This is used to observe functional use of motor skills in play, and play occupations such as independent initiation, use of toys, symbolic play, creativity and imagination, and enjoyment of play.