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Occupational Assessments

Initial Assessment

This is an essential step in the process to identify the needs of the child as well as to set up the performance baseline for further intervention.

When a child is seen for the first time, a comprehensive assessment is recommended to start with. However, this also depends on the child’s ability and necessity. Hence the assessments are carried out in flexibility based on the needs of the child.

The initial assessment goes through non-standardised as well as standardised testing.

The comprehensive assessment will screen the child in the following areas –

  • Motor Organisation -

    • Fine and Gross Motor Skills,
    • Sensory Motor Skills,
  • Sensory Integration -
  • Regulation – Sensory Regulatory
    • Attention
    • Organisation of Behaviour
  • Communication Skill Assessment
  • Social Emotional Skills Assessment
  • Visual Motor – Visual Motor Integration
  • Visual Perception (non-motor).
  • Handwriting – Printing/Handwriting,

The results will be discussed with the parents immediately following the assessment.

A comprehensive written report is given to the parents, which includes a complete review of all other testing, a developmental history, test results and recommendations.

Standardised Tests

Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Bruininks, 1978)

Age range: 4 1/2 – 14 1/2 years

Evaluates the proficiency of gross and fine motor skill performance

Yields standard gross motor composite, fine motor composite, and total battery composite score as well as percentile rank in each area

Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (Folio & Fewell, 1983)?

Age range: Birth – 7 years

Evaluates gross and fine motor skill development

Yields standard score, percentile rank, and age equivalency for gross motor and fine motor performance

Movement ABC Test

The Movement ABC and Movement ABC, Second Edition are two of the most frequently used tests of motor impairment in the world; featuring in over 500 research studies internationally it has been translated and standardised in several countries.
Use the Movement ABC-2 to:

  • Identify delay or impairment in motor development
  • Plan intervention
  • Measure change
  • Research 

Sensory Integration

a) Sensory Integration and Praxis Test

The Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) measure the sensory integration processes that underlie learning and behaviour. By showing you how children organise and respond to sensory input, SIPT helps pinpoint specific organic problems associated with learning disabilities, emotional disorders, and minimal brain dysfunction. 

17 Tests Provide a Comprehensive Assessment The SIPT measures visual, tactile, and kinesthetic perception as well as motor performance. It is composed of the following 17 brief tests:

  • 1. Space Visualisation
  • 2. Figure-Ground Perception
  • 3. Standing/Walking Balance
  • 4. Design Copying
  • 5. Postural Praxis
  • 6. Bilateral Motor Coordination
  • 7. Praxis on Verbal Command
  • 8. Constructional Praxis
  • 9. Postrotary Nystagmus
  • 10. Motor Accuracy
  • 11. Sequencing Praxis
  • 12. Oral Praxis
  • 13. Manual Form Perception
  • 14. Kinesthesia
  • 15. Finger Identification
  • 16. Graphesthesia
  • 17. Localisation of Tactile Stimuli

The entire battery can be given in 2 hours. And any of the individual tests can be administered separately in about 10 minutes. Norms are provided for each test—based on a national (US) sample of more than 2,000 children between the ages of 4 years and 8 years, 11 months. 

b) Clinical Observations

Dr Jean Ayres developed standard “clinical observations”. These clinical observations helps the therapist to facilitate their findings and supplement the information to their standardised testing. This assist the therapist to formulate the bigger picture of the child and prepare the intervention plan.

Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (Berry, 1996)

Age range: 2 – 15 years

Evaluates the integration of visual motor and visual perceptual skills for purpose of early identification of learning difficulties

Yields standard scores, percentile rank, and age equivalency scores

Developmental Test of Visual Perception - 2nd Edition (Hammill, Pearson, Voress, 1993)

Age range: 4 – 10 years

Evaluates visual perceptual skills using both motor and non-motor responses; assesses the areas of eye-hand coordination, position in space, copying, figure-ground, spatial relations, visual closure, visual-motor speed, and form constancy

Yields standard composite scores for general visual perception, motor-reduced visual perception, and visual-motor integration

Motor Free Visual Perceptual Test – Revised (Colarusso, Hammill, Mercier)

Age range: 4 – 11 years

Screens visual perceptual skills by requiring the child to indicate her response using only pointing; assesses the areas of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, figure-ground, visual closure, and visual memory

Yields a standard perceptual quotient and perceptual age equivalency

School Function Assessment (Coster, Deeney, Haltiwanger, Haley, 1997)

Age range: kindergarten – 6th grade

Evaluates functional performance in the elementary school setting which includes: participation in school activity settings, amount of assistance and adaptation for task performance, and performance in nine physical task areas and twelve cognitive/behavioral task areas.

Yields a standard score in each of the areas assessed and cut scores identify the typical range of performance for non-disabled children.

Non-Standardized Assessment/Clinical Observation

Neuromusculoskeletal Evaluation:

Clinical observation of muscle tone, joint range of motion, automatic balance responses, posture, gait and physical strength

Play Skills Evaluation

Informal and formal evaluation of play interactions may be set up during the assessment. This is used to observe functional use of motor skills in play, and play occupations such as independent initiation, use of toys, symbolic play, creativity and imagination, and enjoyment of play.